Winter fruit trees plant protection

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Winter fruit trees plant protection

冬季是防治病虫害的有利时机,加强果树病虫害的综合防治,可以压低果树病虫害的越冬基数,做好病虫害防治,对确保果树高产、稳产有重要意义。

Winter is the good chance to do plant protection and eliminate the harmful insects. To enhance the plant protection can reduce the chance of winter damage to the fruit trees. It will bring the next year harvest.

        冬季,各种果树害虫正值休眠期,各种病虫害也进入越冬阶段。处于越冬休眠状态的病虫害,虽然耐受不良环境的能力较强,但其数量有限、不活动、越冬场所比较集中。因此,冬季是防治病虫害的有利时机,加强果树病虫害的综合防治,可以压低果树病虫害的越冬基数,做好病虫害防治,对确保果树高产、稳产有重要意义。现将冬季果树防治措施总结如下:
In the winter, all the fruit trees harmful insects are sleeping, the illness and harmful insects will be alive after the winter. But the amount is limited and not very active, usually the harmful insects staying together during the winter. It is a good chance for the farm owners to eliminate them during the winter. This will become the good foundation and preparation for next year harvest.        
(1)绑。入冬前在果树上绑草把,引诱害虫到草把内产卵越冬,到深冬后再将草把解下烧掉。可消灭大量的在草把内越冬的害虫和虫卵。       
Tied up. before the winter tied the dry grass on the trees, the insects will go into the dry grass and make nest inside it. During the winter grab these dry grass and burn it out will kill all the insects and their eggs.
(2)翻。深翻果园,可将土壤中越冬的害虫,通过低温和干旱将害虫杀死,以达到消灭的目的。一般翻园深度在30~40厘米,时间以愈接近土壤封冻效果愈好,此时害虫已进入休眠状态,不能重新入土越冬。     
Rolling. Rolling the top soil beside the fruit trees, the insects under the soil will be flip out and been killed by dry and cold. this will significantly good for the fruit trees. usually rolling deep to 30-40 cm. close to the date that soil become frozen. So that the insects cannot return to the soil for the winter.
(3)刮。俗话说:“吃好梨,刮树皮”。这是因为许多危害果树的病虫害如腐烂病、轮纹病、红蜘蛛等在粗皮裂缝中越冬,冬刮树皮,能将这些病虫害清除掉。实践证明,刮粗皮最好在秋末冬初进行,这样可以把害虫消灭在越冬的初期阶段。
Skinning. There was a old saying goes: good pears from the trees that been skinning. it is because many harmful insects and illness are hiding in the trees. During the winter clean up the tree skin will eliminate these illnes and harmful insects. It is been prove that skin cleaning should be exeacuate at the end of autumn. So that the insects will be killed before winter.
        果树刮皮要掌握4点:
        一是刮皮时间应该在冬季土壤结冻后到立春惊蛰前进行
        二是刮皮要彻底,不要只刮树的主干,应将果树所有枝干的粗皮、翘皮刮
        三是刮皮深度要适宜,要掌握“小树、弱树宜轻;大树、旺树宜重”的原则
        四是刮皮时要在树下铺上塑料布,以便于集中收拾销毁。 
4 important notices about skinning:
   1, skinning before spring start
2, not only clean up the base, but also the branches
3, for small trees and weak trees do not clean too deep, for the strong trees and big trees can clean to deeper.
4, place plastic bag under the trees to take the skined stuff together and burn.
(4)清。就是清园。果树的一些病虫害常在杂草、落叶中越冬,或在病枯枝、落叶、落果、僵果里越冬。因此,在果树落叶后,应及时清除果园中的杂草、落叶、落果和病枯枝等,将其深埋或烧毁。清除的时间最好在初冬季节,把清出的东西全部集中起来烧毁或堆积起来沤制肥料。 
Cleaning. Clean the leaves and branches on the top soil, usually the insects and illness are hiding in these place during the winter. So the farm owners should clean the leaves, grass, weed, fruits on the ground.  take these stuff together and burn it out.  
(5)剪。结合冬季修剪,剪除那些有病虫害的枝条,如病枯枝、僵果等进行一次彻底修剪清理,剪后清理集中烧掉。另外,生长多年的各种衰老的果枝和枝组也是病虫越冬的潜伏场所,应及时更新复壮。对修剪所造成的伤口必须涂波尔多液、843康复剂和腐必清液加以保护。   
Cutting. Cut the branches, bushes with illness or insects during the winter and burn them. Also the old branches that grow ages will cover the hiding insects and illness, should clean them up. the cutting surface needs to paint the protection chemicals on it.
(6)喷。一般在果树修剪后和早春果树萌芽前进行,最好喷两次。可用3~5度石硫合剂,要求树上地面均要喷,这样不但可以保护伤口和枝干,而且还能消灭在树干和土壤中越冬的部分病虫。   
Spraying. Usually doing spray after the cutting process, and before the spring growing. use 3%-5% Stone sulfur mixture to spray. it can protect the cutting surface and branches, can also kill the insects.
(7)涂。树干涂白可以减少日烧和冻害,延迟果树的萌芽和开花,避免晚霜危害,还可兼治树干病虫害,即杀死在皮缝中越冬的病虫。涂白剂的配制比例可为:生石灰10份,石硫合剂2份,食盐1~2份,水36~40份,还可加少量杀虫剂。涂白时间以两次为好,第一次在落叶后和土壤结冻前,第二次在早春。涂白部位以主干为主,及主枝、骨干枝基部,树干南面和树叉向阳面重点涂,注意不要涂到芽上,以免烧芽。涂白剂要干稀适当,以涂时不流失,干后不翘、不脱落为宜。
Painting. Paint the trees body to white can reduce the chance of been burn by the sun or been kill by the cold. Delay the growing and flower period. painting formula: 10 parts of quick lime, 2 parts of stone sulfur mixture, 1 ~ 2 parts of salt, 36 ~ 40 parts of water. can also add some pesticide in it. The first paint should be before the soil become frozen, the second paint should be in the early spring. Paint the main body and main branchs of trees. the sun-facing side should be paint. Be ware of not to paint on bud.

 

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